MMR & Chickenpox

Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR)

 

1. What are Measles, Mumps and Rubella?

Measles: Measles is a highly contagious, viral disease that affects the respiratory tract and then spreads throughout the body.1

Mumps: Mumps is a viral contagious disease that primarily affects the salivary glands.2

Rubella: Rubella is a common and contagious disease caused by a virus that occurs most often in children and young adults.4

 

2. How are Measles, Mumps and Rubella transmitted?

Measles, Mumps and Rubella are contagious diseases which get transmitted through coughing, sneezing, talking and sharing items with infected person.1,2,4

In addition to the above, if a pregnant woman gets infected with Rubella, she can pass it to the fetus causing serious harm.4

 

3. What are the symptoms and complications of Measles, Mumps and Rubella?

Measles: Causes fever, rash, cough, runny nose and red, watery eyes. Complications can include ear infection, severe diarrhea, pneumonia, brain damage and death.1

Mumps: Causes fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, loss of appetite and swollen salivary glands. Complications can include swelling of the testicles or ovaries, deafness, inflammation of the brain and/or tissue covering the brain and spinal cord (encephalitis/meningitis) and rarely death.2,3

Rubella: Causes fever, sore throat, rash, headache and red itchy eyes. If a woman gets rubella while she is pregnant, she could have a miscarriage or her baby could be born with serious birth defects.4,5

 

4. How can I protect my child against Measles, Mumps and Rubella?

The spread of these diseases can be prevented by the following:

  • Vaccination helps to protect against Measles, Mumps and Rubella.1,2,3,4,5
  • Other means are1,3,5
    - Limiting/avoiding contact with infected persons
    - Hand washing
    - Proper disposal of tissues

 

5. What do I need to know about Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccination?

Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine can be taken at any age above 9 months.6

If your child has not been vaccinated with MMR vaccine previously or vaccination is not complete; it’s never too late, consult your doctor for vaccination against Measles, Mumps and Rubella.

 

Chickenpox (Varicella)

 

1. What is Chickenpox (Varicella)?

Chickenpox is a very contagious viral infection in which a person develops very itchy blisters all over the body.7

 

2. How is Chickenpox (Varicella) transmitted?

The virus spreads easily from people with chickenpox to others who have never had the disease or been vaccinated through7-

  • Close contact with open blisters
  • When infected person coughs, sneezes or talks
  • From mother to her unborn child via placenta

 

3. What are the symptoms and complications of Chickenpox (Varicella)?

The symptoms of chickenpox are as below7-

  • Mild to severe fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Rash that turn into itchy fluid filled blisters
  • Blisters eventually turn into scabs

Serious but rare complications of chicken pox include bacterial super infections, scarring, pneumonia, central nervous system manifestations, bleeding problems.7

 

4. What are the consequences of Chickenpox (Varicella) on me and my child?

Chickenpox can lead to significant economic and social burden such as hospitalization, doctor visits, medication and distress for the family.8,9

Children with chickenpox can miss an average of 5-6 days of school and parents miss 3-4 days of work to care for their sick child.8,9

 

5. How can I protect my child against Chickenpox (Varicella)?

Vaccination helps to protect against Chickenpox.10

Other means are10:
- Keep yourself away from an infected person
- Regularly wash infected clothes or bedding
- Avoid scratching open blisters

 

6. What do I need to know about Chickenpox (Varicella) vaccinaton?

Chickenpox vaccine can be taken any time after 1 year of age.6

If your child has not been vaccinated with chickenpox vaccine previously or vaccination is not complete; it’s never too late, consult your doctor for vaccination against Chickenpox (Varicella).


References:

  1. World Health Organization. Measles factsheet. Available from:
    http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs286/en/; Accessed February, 2017
  2. World Health Organization. Mumps vaccines. WHO position paper. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2007; 82:49-60. Available
    from: http://www.who.int/immunization/wer8207mumps_Feb07_position_paper.pdf?ua=1; Accessed February, 2017
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mumps. In: Epidemiology and prevention of vaccine-preventable
    diseases. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/mumps.html; Accessed February, 2017
  4. World Health Organization. Rubella factsheet. Available from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs367/en/;
    Accessed February, 2017
  5. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Rubella. Available from:
    http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/rubella.html. Accessed February, 2017
  6. ACVIP Immunisation Schedule-2016; Available from:
    http://acvip.org/professional/columns/iap-immunization-schedule-2016-table-form; Accessed February, 2017
  7. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Chickenpox. Available from:
    https://www.cdc.gov/chickenpox/about/index.html; Accessed February, 2017
  8. Banz K, Wagenpfeil S, Neiss A et al. The burden of varicella in Germany. Potential risks and economic impact. Eur
    J Health Econ. 2004;5:46-53
  9. Soarez PC, Novaes HM, Sartori AM. Impact of methodology on the results of economic evaluations of varicella
    vaccination programs: Is it important for decision-making? Cad Saude Publica. 2009;25 Suppl 3:S401
  10. PubMed Health, How can you avoid getting chickenpox? Available from:
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0072806; Accessed February, 2017


IN/PRIT/0005/17; Date of preparation: March, 2017